The Hague Protocol on Maintenance Obligations 2007 ("Hague Protocol 2007") of 23 November 2007 provides conflict-of-law rules on the law applicable to maintenance obligations arising from a family relationship, parentage, marriage or pregnancy. The Hague Protocol 2007 is an international Convention. It was ratified by the EU on 10 April 2013 on behalf of all Member States except for Denmark and the United Kingdom and further entered into force in Serbia. For the Member States of the EU, the conflict-of-laws rules of the Protocol already entered into force from 18 June 2011 through Council Decision of 30 November 2009 (OJ EU 2009 L 331, 17), which was the same day that the EU Maintenance Regulation (Regulation No 4/2009) entered into force. The Protocol provisions apply to all maintenance obligations which were relied upon in court proceedings which began from the day when the Protocol entered into force on 18 June 2011. Pursuant to Article 5(2) of EU Council Decision of 30 November 2009, it also applies retrospectively to maintenance obligations relating to a period prior to 18 June 2011 which are invoked in maintenance proceedings instituted after 18 June 2011.